Conference: Asia-MENA AHRD Conference 2016

8 November 2016

This weekend I returned from nine days in Morocco for the 2016 AHRD Conference in Asia and MENA. The conference itself was November 2-4 in Ifrane, Morocco, which is known as the Switzerland of Morocco. In the picture above (courtesy of Dollaya Hemmapattawe who is far left in the picture), a group of us with Thai connections (including Gary McLean who teaches often at NIDA in Bangkok) got together for a photo.

My adviser at the George Washington University (GWU), Dr. Maria Cseh, was the opening keynote speaker, so I was especially proud to be there. The conference was small with fewer than 100 people attending and about 40 participants, but I found the intimate setting relaxing, fun, and full of community. The downside, of course, was several of the presentations I wanted to attend were during my session on Thursday morning.

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Photo courtesy of Dollaya Hemmapattawe

I presented a paper with Dollaya and Dr. Cseh on “Corporate Universities and Corporation-University Partnerships in Thailand: Complimenting Education in Learning, Leadership, and Change.” We looked at all the corporate universities in Thailand (quite a few have popped up in the last 10 years) as well as the partnership programs that many corporations are creating with universities. We then analyzed two programs in-depth, looking at how they incorporate elements of learning, leadership, and change, which are the pillars of human resource development (HRD). Based on our investigation, I believe corporate universities are complimenting traditional higher education in Thailand in important ways, although there are risks to quality.

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Photo courtesy of Dollaya Hemmapattawe

Before the conference, I was fortunate to spend a few days in Fes, Morocco (about one hour from Ifrane. Morocco is a beautiful country with rich culture, and Fes is the perfect city to demonstrate that. I had a few big projects due during that time, including a book chapter on teacher education in Thailand, so when I wasn’t touring the medina (old city), I was writing and editing. Here is the view from the roof of my riad:

img_0353A riad is a traditional Moroccan  house in the old city. Riads have massive sunroofs that allow the sun to shine in the interior of the house. All the rooms face this open interior, which makes for a cozy place to spend time and enjoy coffee, fruit, and breads.

I hope to return to Morocco sometime with Khai so we can explore the Sahara and other parts of Morocco, like Marrakesh, which I didn’t have the chance to explore this time around. Wishing you all the best! Now, time to vote.

 

 

Article Critique: Learning to Lead: Foundations of Emerging Leader Identity Development

October 15, 2016

Yeager, K. L., & Callahan, J. L. (2016). Learning to lead: Foundations of emerging leader identity development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1523422316645510.

The Problem: Organizations face several challenges that stand poised to place a significant strain on the availability of qualified leaders. Flatter organization structures, the use of more teams, and impending retirements of the Baby Boomer generation mean that the field of human resource development (HRD) must be prepared to help organizations develop the next generation of leaders. Scholars and practitioners must ensure that leader development initiatives will effectively prepare the forthcoming leaders from among young adults.

The Solution: The focus of this study was to develop an understanding of how leadership experiences shape leader identity development. We offer a model that explains the dynamic, interactive process of leader identity development. Specifically, this model identifies the importance of relationships, leading by example, authenticity, and the motivation to lead for young adults.

The Stakeholders: HRD scholars and practitioners may use the findings in this study to target developmental initiatives for future leaders.

Yesterday, I spent time with Dr. Nisha Manikoth at George Washington University in the campus community center. She mentioned the importance of reflecting on learning and communicating that learning to others in accessible ways. Unfortunately (or fortunately), a small percentage of people read academic journal articles. In some ways, it’s up to those invested enough to spend time reading those articles to share compelling findings with others in our communities. This is what I’m trying–somewhat feebly–to do in these article critique blog posts.

Advances in Developing Human Resources, or Advances for short, is one of the four refereed research journals sponsored by the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). This article was written by Katherine Yeager and Jamie Callahan, the latter of whom I met in Ireland at the UFHRD conference in 2015 and have since gotten to know better, which made me excited to read this article.

On to the article!

In this day and age, many employers expect candidates to have certain leadership qualities before entering the workforce. This reality inspired the researchers to look at young leaders (aged 18-20) to find out what kinds of experiences these young leaders had and how those experiences influenced their identities as leaders. This is a phenomenological study, which is a fancy way of saying that they conducted in-depth interviews to learn more about the lived experiences of the participants. They used a technique  (Seidman, 2006) of conducting three interviews with each participant to build rapport with the participants and really dive deeply into their experiences. I thought this technique was particularly justified considering the study.

What did they find?

The researchers found the experiences that most affected these young leaders’ identities were “developing relationships with others, leading by example, developing leader authenticity, and being motivated to lead” (p. 289).  The researchers created a nice model and expounded on these themes but I thought I would share what I found particularly interesting.

Firstly, young leaders learn to lead by observing the example of leaders in their communities. As they begin integrating these leadership qualities in their lives, the young leaders begin feeling like leaders and in turn are treated as leaders by others. It sounds obvious, but having relationships with leaders and emulating them leads to leader identity development.

They also found that leader authenticity was important to developing leader identity. The young leaders associated “integrity and character” with what it means to be a leader. The more they embodied those characteristics, the more their own identity as leaders emerged. The fact that we associate integrity and character with leadership may just be a cultural construction, but it’s my hunch that these qualities transcend culture in many ways. Think about the importance of integrity and character for developing relationships, trust, and cooperation all of which have been vital for the development and survival of our species.

There are many more interesting discussion points that emerge from this article, and I truly enjoyed reading it. I also thought it was interesting in that it looked at 18-20 year-olds since most HRD literature consists of older adults in the workforce. I wonder, as HRD continues to expand, if more leadership research will extend into earlier years of life.

Onward.

Rest in peace, King Bhumibol

October 13, 2016

I woke up to the sad news of the death of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. I put my Thai flag in the front of my house to share with others our grief for his passing and to express my appreciation for his service to a country I love so deeply. I wanted to share a few words of gratitude for his life and work as well as a few quotes of his I have found inspirational for my work in education and human development.

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Pictures and newspaper clippings at Auburn Hospital.

When I lived in Cambridge, I made a point to visit the place of his birth at Mt. Auburn Hospital. It was wonderful seeing his picture with newspaper clippings hung proudly in the hospital hallway.

It is impossible to overstate his impact on the lives of Thai people and the country as a whole. Many of the things I love about Thailand are linked to his work.

I wanted to share some of his own words about education and human development that have influenced my thinking.

First, here are some words about the importance of developing human potential and harmony: “Education means guiding and promoting persons to progress in learning, thinking, and performing according to their own ability. The ultimate aim should be for each individual to be able to make the best use of his or her potential, to benefit oneself and others in harmony and without conflict or harassment.”

Here are some of my favorite words of his that reflect the importance and power of lifelong learning: “Education concerns everyone, and not for a particular period, as a direct duty for a period. It is not so. From birth, one starts to learn. Growing up, one has to learn, up to higher education, as you are pursuing. We call it Udom Sueksa – full or complete education. But once you leave this institution and start working, you have to continue studying. Or you would not survive. Even those with doctoral degrees have to study further. Education is endless.”

He was a thoughtful, considerate, and brilliant man. If you want to read more, I encourage you to check out “King Bhumibol and His Enlightened Approach to Teaching.” I also recommend this biography: King Bhumibol Adulyadej: A Life’s Work.

During this time of mourning I am thinking of all my friends in Thailand. I wish you all peace and wisdom.

Rest in peace, King Bhimbol. Thank you for your service to Thailand.

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A picture of Khai and me with King Bhumibol’s photo in the background

In the News: Cultivating Time

October 3, 2016

While not exactly “in the news,” I subscribe to Jennifer Garvey Berger‘s Cultivating Leadership blog and woke up this morning to see her new post on Cultivating Time.

A note of background, Berger is a leadership development adviser and coach who I met when she guest lectured in Bob Kegan’s Adult Development course at Harvard in 2012. At the time, her book Changing on the Job had just come out and was required reading for Kegan’s course. Berger was a student of Kegan before that and has integrated Constructive Developmental Theory into her life and work as a leadership and change consultant. She has a new book – Simple Habits for Complex Times: Powerful Practices for Leaders – but it has yet to move from my Amazon Cart.

Berger’s recent post on Cultivating Time discusses how we experience time and the difference between being linearly-time poor and experientially time-rich. With regard to Mihaly Csiksgentmihalyi’s concept of flow she writes, “many leadership theorists talk about the particular form of presence that best allows leadership to emerge—a full-bodied attention, a balcony perspective on what’s going on, a careful attentiveness to the present system and its behavior out of which a new and better future can be cultivated.” In this post, Berger encourages her readers to focus on cultivating presence and mindfulness with regards to our experiences so that we can become experientially time-rich.

She concludes by writing, “Poets and psychologists can write all they want about how life is short and we have to seize the day, but it is up to each of us to shift our relationship to our own time on the planet…I will fail at this, of course, in big and small ways each day, but I will be grateful nonetheless for the opportunity each dawn gives me to start again to be increasingly present in my life, so that it is not a rushed blur but an ever-changing painting of colorful moments of deep connection, each point on the page giving form and depth to the pointillist landscape of my life.”

How powerful is that last line. I love the image of making our lives “an ever-changing painting of colorful moments of deep connection.”

Berger’s work aligns well with my personal and professional interests in leadership, adult learning, and organizational change. I think anyone interested in Human Resource Development would be enriched by her work. I know I have.

Onward.

Article Critique: Social Competence in Small Firms–Fostering Workplace Learning and Performance

October 1, 2016

Lans, T., Verhees, F., & Verstegen, J. (2016). Social competence in small firms–Fostering workplace learning and performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 27(3), 321-348.

Abstract: While it is widely accepted that social networks are key to small-firm success, detailed studies on the specific contribution of owner-managers’ social competence to learning and performance are scarce. In this article, the importance of owner-managers’ social competence was explored in a specific, innovative small-firm sector in the Netherlands: the agri-food sector. This was done by means of a qualitative (n = 13) and quantitative (n = 556) study. In the qualitative study, the two social competence domains most frequently cited and employed in entrepreneurial workplace learning practices were a social learning orientation and the ability to interact with strategic social partners. The quantitative study illustrated that social competence, overall, influences small-firm performance significantly. However, the relationships between social competence and small-firm performance seem to depend on the specific strategies that owner-managers pursue. In particular, this research supports the idea of social competence being an important driver of success for specific small-firm strategies and for the ongoing development of existing and new capabilities. As such, it underlines the importance of the capability-driven approach to HRD in the small-firm context. This, in turn, has implications for small-firm support programs.

My last blog post talked about the importance of being good consumers of research, and since I believe being a good consumer of research is mostly a skill that takes practice and refinement, here are some thoughts on this recent article from Human Resource Development Quarterly (HRDQ). I am doctoral student and aspiring academic in the field of HRD so I use the word “critique” lightly. Here are a few things I liked and some questions I have.

This article drew from two studies, one qualitative and one quantitative, to answer the research question. They did a good job of outlining the studies separately in the article but bringing them together in the discussion, limitations, and conclusion. The mixed-methods nature of this article made it particularly compelling.

In justifying the population for the study (Dutch agri-food sector), the authors did a great job of pointing out how the Netherlands is the “third-largest exporter of agricultural products in the world” and how there are “approximately 65,000 small firms that operate in the Netherlands under highly comparable conditions in terms of climate, laws and regulations, financial institutions, markets, and availability of labor and technology” (p. 323). This perfectly sets up the research question of “What is the specific influence of owner-managers’ social competence on small-firm workplace learning and performance in a clearly defined sector?” (p. 323). By the time I read this, I was impressed with how much the authors convinced me that the Dutch agri-food sector was not only a good population to answer the research question but the perfect context to conduct this study. This is a good reminder for me in future studies: justify the population and context of a study so well that readers think it is the best possible context imaginable.

One question I have regards the construct of social competence itself. The authors used the term social competence despite admitting “the subject of social dysfunction in early childhood dominates existing studies of social competence” (p. 322). This makes me wonder if social competence is the best construct considering the limited number of studies using social competence in the context of small-firms or HRD. That being said, there are a few studies that use social competence in this context and I liked the discussion later on the emergence of social competence from social capital theory.

Regarding the qualitative study, the researchers utilized critical incident technique (CIT) to shape the interviews and data, which makes sense in this study but I wonder if using CIT kept the researchers from understanding other parts of the story by going in more depth and with a more open-ended mindset. CIT ends up feeling more quantitative or post-positivist instead of what I think of when I think of the power of qualitative interviews.

In sum, I thought the conclusion of the paper was fascinating, i.e. that social competence of owner-managers influences learning and performance in these small firms. I agree with the authors’ recommendation of doing similar studies in different contexts and that social competence should be more of a consideration in small firms and HRD education.

Being Good Consumers of Research

September 24, 2016

If there is one common goal across graduate programs in the social sciences it is for students to become good consumers of research. Unfortunately, when it comes to reading academic articles, it seems like most of us graduate students  read the introduction, skip the methods/discussion/limitations, and go straight for the conclusion. Here are a few tips I think will help us all become better consumers of research.

  1. Read the whole article. This is hard to do when you have seven dense articles to read for your next class, but I don’t think we’ll ever be good consumers of research if we just read the introduction and conclusion. In fact, the more research I read, the less valuable I’ve found those sections. If written well, the article as a whole will give you a better sense of the strength of the analysis as well as highlight any weaknesses. It’s worth the time and struggle.
  2. Be curious. In a given article, there are plenty of rabbit holes that may be worth following. Take a few minutes while reading to look up the occasional reference, theory, instrument, or author that grabs your attention. This will help you make connections in the literature and aid in understanding. It can also be very pleasurable to look something up in Google Scholar and see what comes out of it. I’ve found some great papers and scholars this way that I likely wouldn’t have found otherwise.
  3. Take methods courses. The quality of any research paper is predicated on the quality of research methodology in answering the research question. Methods courses can be time-consuming, especially when you only have so many electives in a particular program but in my experience they have enriched my academic learning. Without at least a minimal understanding of research methodology, it is very hard to be a good consumer of research.That being said, methods courses aren’t the only place to learn these skills. Reviewing methodology and critiquing articles should be embedded in all academic courses.
  4. Read and critique journal articles that interest you. This is something I’ve stumbled into and would like to incorporate more in my blog. I get the hard copy of my favorite journals delivered to my house because I like to sit down and read them for pleasure on a lazy Saturday like today. With pencil in hand, I underline things I find compelling, questions I have, and things I want to come back to. Of course, this only works if it’s something I do because I want to do it instead of because I think I should, so I encourage you to find articles and journals that you would read for pleasure.
  5. Email the author(s) if you have a question. I have about a 33% response rate to blind emails I send out to scholars about their articles but it’s something that helps me stay engaged. I’ve found that authors are more responsive if I keep my emails short, include my question/comment up front, and mention any mutual connections I may have with the author or content. Putting a face (or in this case an email) to the name can help humanize scholars, and for a social person like me, it’s just more fun. My favorite thing at conferences is meeting scholars in person whose papers I’ve read and enjoyed.

I’m sure this list could go on, and I may have strayed somewhat from the original purpose of this blog post. Still, I hope you’ve enjoyed! Now, I’m off to critique an article I just read.

All the best,

Ozzie

(Featured image is of Gelman Library at the George Washington University by Dollaya Hemmapattawe)

Summer Research Conclusion

September 14, 2016

Much to my dismay, summer has ended and classes have begun again here at GW. I am so grateful to the Sigur Center for Asian Studies at the Elliot School for International Affairs here at GW for affording me the opportunity to conduct a research project this summer in Thailand and Myanmar through the Grant for Asian Field Research. What a wild ride!

As part of the project, I wrote and reflected on my experiences and project on the Asia on E Street Blog and on the Rising Powers Initiative Blog. Here are the following four posts I wrote if you’re interested in learning more about my summer:

Asia on E Street: Organizational Development in Thailand and Myanmar

Asia on E Street: Life Worth Exploring: Reflections on my Asian Field Research in Thailand and Myanmar

Rising Powers Initiative: Want to Support Myanmar? Don’t Forget About Mae Sot

Rising Powers Initiative: Doing High Quality Research in Myanmar: Four Recommendations

In my free time, I did a lot of running while I was there. I’m training for the JFK 50 Miler on November 19 this year. I used my long runs as opportunities to share a little through video about my experiences in Myanmar. Many people can’t locate Myanmar on a map much less have a mental image of what its various cities might look like. Here is a short and limited introduction from my runs:

In Hpa An:

In Loikaw:

Wishing you all the best!

Ozzie

Summer Research: Organizational Development in Community-Based Organizations

July 19, 2016

Spring flew by and I’m here now in Mae Sot – along the Thai-Myanmar border – working on a pilot study for my dissertation on organizational development in community-based organizations.

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The view from one of the organizations

I’m grateful to the Sigur Center for Asian Studies at the Elliot School for International Affairs at The George Washington University (GW) for making this field research possible. I’m also thankful to Dr. Christina Fink at GW for introducing me to the grant, the wonderful people of the International Rescue Committee (IRC), Payap University (PYU), and of course the leaders of organizations participating in this study.

I will be writing two more official blog posts to be published by the Sigur Center later in the project and will post links to those posts here but I also wanted to write about my experiences here as well.

The quick and dirty overview of my field research is that I’m here to do a multiple-case study pilot study of four leaders of organizations – two in Mae Sot along the border and two inside Myanmar. The purpose of this study is to see how organizational development in community-based organizations creates a lasting impact in communities in Myanmar.

My interest in this topic came from being involved in developing a Certificate Program in Organizational Development at Payap University in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2012-2014. Now studying my doctoral degree in Human and Organizational Learning at GW, I became increasingly interested in how – if at all – this certificate was having an impact on the organizations and communities in Myanmar and along the Thai-Myanmar border.

Thus, my research questions were formed to be something like: How do four leaders of these organizations use what was taught in the Organizational Development Certificate Program to serve the purposes of their CBOs and communities? How do the participants in the certificate program perceive the usefulness of the course for their work and lives? And lastly, how, if at all, has the certificate course contributed in any noticeable way to organizational change within these CBOs?

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Park area near my guesthouse

It’s been an great experience in cross-cultural planning finding the organizations and leaders to participate in the study as well as the best times and days to meet. I’ve been here in Thailand for nearly three weeks and learning a lot. So thankful for this opportunity. I leave for Myanmar on Friday.

Onward.

Conference: ESRI 2016

April 28, 2016

Not too long ago we had the Educational Symposium for Research and Innovations (ESRI) here at GW, which is the student-led conference of the Graduate School of Education and Human Development. I’ve thoroughly enjoyed the last two years in my capacity as proposal review board member, presenter, and all-around conference enthusiast.

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My friend and colleague Lisa did a fantastic job organizing the event. Everything ran smoothly, the food was amazing, and there was a great exchange of learning. I was particularly impressed with the keynote speaker, Dahlia Schaewitz, from the American Institutes for Research (AIR) here in DC. She doesn’t have a doctorate which likely elicited some initial arrogant scoffs from the audience but her presentation was impeccable. She highlighted the importance of research for positive change in policy and practice specifically related to people with disabilities both in schools and in the workforce.

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I also had the opportunity to present. I wrote a paper specifically for this conference on human resource development (HRD) in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It was well-received, although I think only a few people had ever heard of ASEAN.

I have been increasingly interested in this topic and have done some thinking about how regional economic integration brings up some significant HRD related issues. Earlier this month I also attended a meeting on Myanmar at the US-ASEAN Business Council, which I may blog about later. It reinforced for me all the complex issues – economic, political, and social – facing ASEAN and its member states.

Conferences are one of my favorite things about being in academia (second perhaps to reading). I love being a part of a learning community – sharing, questioning, making connections. I am fortunate and thankful to be here at GW. Looking forward to ESRI next year!

Myanmar in Transition

March 3, 2016

It’s been four months since the November elections in Myanmar that set the stage to hand over power from the largely military government to the National League for Democracy (NLD) led by long-time pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi. Expectations are high as the people of Myanmar and the world look on to observe the transition of power. This was the topic of a recent panel discussion at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace here in Washington, D.C. entitled Myanmar’s Burden of High Expectations facilitated by Vikram Nehru. The entire talk is available here:

The panelists included Mary Callahan, associate professor at the University of Washington, U Aung Din, founder of the U.S. Campaign for Burma and senior adviser to the Open Myanmar Initiative, and Christina Fink, professor of practice at The George Washington University. I’ve gotten to know Dr. Fink through Chiang Mai connections. She has written extensively on Myanmar, including the 2009 book Living Silence in Burma: Surviving Under Military Rule, which I was glad to see a couple copies of in the Chiang Mai airport during my last trip.

Here are a few takeaways from the panel:

Mary Callahan shared the “serious pent up grievances” of common people like taxi drivers (amazingly she said she takes around 8 per day.) Her five issues to watch include 1) the dam decision, which she thinks will be delayed even further creating more tension with China; 2) military retirements; 3) the peace process, and whether it will be delayed or not; 4) important land issues; and, 5) the unfolding of the promise of more inclusive economic growth, which many people have yet to feel in their daily lives.

U Aung Din–a former political prisoner in Myanmar who fled the country upon his release–talked about the continual involvement of the military and problems in the judicial system which is “weak, poor, and corrupt.” In spite of challenges like this, Mr. Aung Din was confident that the Burmese people will be able to move forward.

Christina Fink at Carnegie Endowment

Christina Fink talked about the NLD’s competence to run the government, the relationship of the NLD and the military, and ethnic inclusion. The situation regarding ethnic inclusion is incredibly fragile. Only one ethnic parliamentarian from Rakhine State was elected in November. Some ethnic leaders believe the NLD should not have campaigned in those states, which might have allowed more ethic leaders to serve in government.

Throughout the whole talk, a notable tension was the difficult place of Aung San Suu Kyi. On the one hand, she is seeking to change the constitution, especially the controversial Article 59 (f), which is an affront to the military. On the other hand she must work effectively with the military in the government transition and the peace process.

Overall, the talk was enlightening and important as we think about this transition. All the panelists are inspirational for me as I consider living a meaningful life as an academic and activist for social change in Southeast Asia and throughout the world.

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